By Duncan McConnell B. S., M. S., Ph.D. (auth.)
The guidance of a quantity in this subject was once undertaken with a few hesitancy on my half as the ramifications of the mineralogy of apatite contain either bio logical and actual sciences in very tricky methods. This hesitancy could have arisen partly from the conclusion that significant ability will be required for you to extract the which means from the millions of papers that experience seemed in the previous 20 years; the duty of trying to extract and gather the usable info appeared colossal. tremendously including to the trouble was once the truth that a substantial component to those magazine articles include not anything of worth and extra confuse a most intricate subject. however, it was once concept that a few of my formal schooling within the bio logical sciences, which has been enormously prolonged and augmented prior to now fifteen years, should be built-in with my extra large schooling and event in chemistry, crystallography, mineralogy, geology and physics so that it will professional duce anything that might relate to the mineral apatite and its super assorted occurences in nature. while it appeared necessary to indicate many of the many vital elements during which this information bears on geology, agriculture, chemical engineering, drugs and dentistry.
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Additional resources for Apatite: Its Crystal Chemistry, Mineralogy, Utilization, and Geologic and Biologic Occurrences
63 .. 429) given by ENGEL . 1. Substitutions for Calcium 25 The composition [CdlO(P04)6F2] is exceptional in showing contraction of both a and c, possibly suggesting that Cd is the smallest cation for which the end member with the fluorapatite structure is stable. Several apatite structures containing Cd have been studied by ENGEL , but the agreement is not good for a and c measurements obtained by KREIDLER & HUMMEL. Substitution of Sn·· for Ca has been reported for the chlorapatite structure  and to a somewhat greater extent for a variant of hydroxyapatite [Sn9Ca (P04)G(OH, CI, F)2] produced by hydrothermal synthesis .
The question of the structure of apatite as AlO(Z04)6 [actually AlO(Z04)sD2] arises. Voelckerite has been mentioned previously. Absence of the centering of the triangular configuration of Ca ions (at elevation 1/4 c, adjacent to the 63 axis) by an anion, while possible, hardly seems probable when synthesis is brought about in an environment containing an abundance of anion-forming constituents, either in aqueous media or in melts. 2. Synthesis One of the completely unjustifiable assumptions made in connection with syntheses is that the resulting product is a single phase with the apatite structure and contains the cations in exactly the same proportions as that of the original ingredients.
The argument is most intricate and is unlikely to be resolved soon in terms of any analytical method that has been applied to date. The original supposition in considering the problem of the oxyapatites was comparatively naive: two monovalent anions are merely replaced by one divalent anion . The structural implications are really somewhat more complex: either there is a statistical vacancy among half of the sites at (0, 0, 1/4) or there is some reason for assuming that ordering takes place - for some unexplained reason - and half of these sites are empty.
Apatite: Its Crystal Chemistry, Mineralogy, Utilization, and Geologic and Biologic Occurrences by Duncan McConnell B. S., M. S., Ph.D. (auth.)